Art: Beginning/
Intermediate Drawing

 

Presenter: Kylie Anderson

Class Dates: Fridays, Sept. 4-Oct. 9

Class Time: 10 a.m.-Noon

Class Location: ZOOM

Format: Online

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course will introduce students to traditional drawing media and the fundamentals of the drawing process. Our first project, a simple still life, will cover proportion measuring techniques and shading to create form. Students will experiment with the layering of vine and compressed charcoal. During the second project, an organic still life, students will use ink washes and create texture ranges. We finish off the class with a portrait assignment.

Intermediate Drawing - This course will further develop each student’s understanding of proportion measuring, mark-making and shading. We will begin with a complex still life, then move on to a reproduction of an old master’s figure drawing. The final project will be open-ended with the option to use color.

Film: The Magic of Children's Cinema

 

Presenter: Betty Robbins

Class Dates: Tuesdays, Sept. 8-Oct. 13

Class Time: 1 - 4 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: In-Person

Cost: $45

Class Description: Were you enchanted by Pinocchio, Peter Pan, or the children in The Secret Garden as a child? How might the magic of those tales have meaning for you now? All we as adults need to do to understand the importance of children’s cinema and narratives in American culture is consider the acclaim of Harry Potter books. Current box office receipts place the tales of the adolescent wizard among the top-grossing films of all time. A dominant genre in film history from Chaplin to Disney animations, children’s cinema relays critical cultural information and reproduces social and individual values, moral codes, fantasies, aesthetics and childhood and family joy.

This course will survey a variety of sub-genres of children’s cinema in six films. We will discuss the psychological depth of good children’s film with an eye and ear for recurring archetypal figures that have the never-ending power to enchant us. We will question if and how those archetypal figures make the world manageable for children and, hopefully, gain more understanding of the values in the myths and fairy tales we are handing down to children in our own families. Perhaps we will come to see more deeply the profound significance these narratives have in their lives, as we appreciate together the meaning they have had and continue to have in our own lives.

Fundamentals of iOS

 

Presenter: Jeremy Hessman

Class Dates: Thursdays, September 3 - October 8

Class Time: 9:30 -11:30 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format:  Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description:  This course will cover the basics of Apple devices, walking users through how access, work with, and use different aspects of their mobile devices, both tablets and cell phones.

Finance: Can This Capitalism Be Saved?

 

Presenter: Mary Carter

Class Dates: Mondays, Sept. 28-Oct.19

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

This course overlaps with an earlier course, Saving Capitalism, but branches into new territory with the inclusion of some of the cutting-edge ideas about capitalism and what needs to change to save it. The course will provide an analysis of how the rules governing America’s form of capitalism continue to be distorted. It will explore how these distortions are reflected in what we consider productive or unproductive in our economy, thereby influencing how we account for value in the measurement of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). These distortions contribute to growing income inequality and the anxieties in our society. Finally, the course will outline the changes that could be made to restore a capitalism that delivers more opportunities to all.

This course will focus primarily on the books The Value of Everything by Mariana Mazzucato, professor in the economics of innovation and public value at University College London, Saving Capitalism by Robert Reich, Chancellor’s professor of public policy at the University of California, Berkeley, and former secretary of labor in the Clinton Administration, and the book The Future of Capitalism–Facing the New Anxieties, by Paul Collier, professor of economics and public policy at the Blavatnik School of Government, Oxford University.

Health: Meditation

 

Presenter: Haven Tobias

Class Dates: Fridays, Oct. 2-23

Class Time: 2-3:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: Make regular meditation part of your “new normal.” You are invited to enjoy meditations from such teachings of Buddha as: discourse on the better way to catch a snake, discourse on knowing the better way to live alone, discourse on the middle way and discourse on the eight realizations. Depending on the wishes of the class, we may also visit at least one of the following: discourse on the absolute truth, discourse on teachings to be given to the sick and discourse on love.

Health: OLLI Discussion Group

 

Presenter: Led by Participants

Class Dates: Wednesday, Aug. 26-Nov. 18 (No class Sept. 30)

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: Zoom

Format: Online

Cost: $45

Class Description: The discussion group will meet weekly on Wednesday mornings for OLLI members who would like to share their ideas, feelings and concerns about what’s going on in our world. The purpose is fellowship and learning together through sharing concerns and ideas while responding to others’ initiation of other ideas. This is not your typical OLLI course led by a faculty member. YOU become the leaders and decide what to talk about.

Health: What Seniors Need to Know About Advance Directives

 

Presenter: Teresa A. Williams

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Aug. 5-Sept. 2 (No class Aug. 12)

Class Time: 1:30-3 p.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course will introduce seniors to the various advance directives allowed under Oklahoma law. Week One will be an introduction to advance directives. Week Two will focus on powers of attorney for business, health care and mental health. Week Three will address living wills and health care proxies. Week Four will focus on DNR forms and physician orders for life-sustaining treatment. Seniors often have questions about what these forms are and if they are needed.

History: History of Great Britain During Prehistoric, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Viking Britain Periods

 

Presenter: Ken Johnson

Class Dates: Fridays, Oct. 16-Nov. 6

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: ZOOM

Format: Online

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

The four sessions deal with: 1) Prehistoric and Celtic Britain–the Great Ice Age and prehistoric remains, such as Stonehenge and Skara Brae, rising sea level separates the island of Great Britain from continental Europe, and later occupation by Celtic tribes from continental Europe; 2) Roman Britain–invasion of Britain by Emperor Claudius in 43 AD, conflict with the Celts, conquest and settling or the best lands, construction of Hadrian’s Wall, the arrival of Christianity and other major activities; 3) Anglo-Saxon Britain–invasion/settlement of the Angles and Saxons after the Roman Legions leave in 410 AD, King Arthur and other notables, the “Sutton Hoo” archaeological site, Beowulf, the beginnings of British culture, and early Viking raids; and 4) Viking Britain–raids and settlements, such as Lindisfarne (monastery) and Jorvik (Viking-age York), that led to partition of the island and separation of “The Danelaw” from the rest of Britain. The story ends with the invasion of Britain by William the Conqueror.

History: Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age

 

Presenter: Tanya Szafranski

Class Dates: Thursdays, Aug. 27-Oct. 1 

Class Time: 10 a.m.-Noon

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: This seminar uses historical and archaeological sources to explore ancient Greece at the dawn of its history in the second millennium BC We will examine the relationships between so-called “Mycenaean” Greek culture and its Aegean predecessor, the “Minoan” culture, as well as political and economic connections between Minoan/Mycenaean cultures and states to the south and east, including Egypt, Levantine cities and the Hittites of Anatolia. The seminar will address the archaeological evidence pertaining to two cataclysmic events—the volcanic destruction of the island of Thera, and the political and economic collapse of eastern Mediterranean states in the 1100s BC—and discuss their relationship to ancient and modern stories of the Exodus and the Trojan War.  Finally, we will consider the contributions of these second-millennium Mediterranean cultures to the first-millennium Greek culture and literature with which we are familiar.

History: Athletics and Society in Ancient Greece

 

Presenter: Tanya Szafranski   

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Nov. 4-25

Class Time: 9-11 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: This seminar uses the topic of athletic competition to explore various aspects of ancient Greek culture, including social status, gender and political identity. We will discuss the ancient written and visual sources that allow historians to reconstruct the Greek athletic ideal, as well as its reality. Our journey will begin in the Bronze Age of the second millennium B.C., continuing through the founding of the Olympics in the 8th century B.C. and the significance of cyclical athletic cycles to inter-city relationships in Classical Greece, ending with the inevitable conflict between Greek and Roman ideals after the Roman conquest of Greece. In addition, we will discuss the Greek athletic legacy as it relates to the modern (19th century) revival of international Olympic games.

History: Chinese Culture

 

Presenter: Paul Bell

Class Dates: Tuesdays, Sept. 8-Oct. 6

Class Time: 9:30-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course will provide an introduction to Chinese culture. A Chinese person’s sense of identity is based on shared cultural beliefs and practices that have developed over 5,000 years, largely free of Western influence. This common cultural heritage confers on Chinese distinctive ways of perceiving themselves and the world around them and of interacting with others. In this course we will examine the various features from which Chinese culture derives, including: a syncretic system of beliefs; reading, writing and thinking in Chinese characters; the centrality of the family; filial piety and respect for ancestors; personal relationships based on human feelings and a sense of mutual obligation; and dialectical thinking.

History: What’s So Funny? Comedy from Antiquity to Modern Day

 

Presenter: Rebecca Huskey

Class Dates: Mondays, Aug. 3-24

Class Time: 9-10:30 a.m.

Class Location: Onlline

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: In this seminar, we explore how the Romans humorously observed everyday life, poked gentle fun at country bumpkins, and coped with the vagaries of living in a big, bustling city. Puns, satire and comedic stereotypes are not at all new. Mistaken identity was a favorite theme of the Roman playwright Plautus, whose plots have been adapted by Shakespeare and modern-day sitcom writers. The satirist Juvenal, a precursor of contemporary writers such as Christopher Buckley and Molly Ivins, showed us how to make fun of those in power. Dark and biting humor was a mainstay of the poet Martial, whose readers will recognize his style in the works of Joan Rivers and Mel Brooks. While there was no such thing as “bleeping” of curse words in antiquity, ancient writers could face serious consequences for being too pointed intheir comic critiques or too bawdy with language. Come and learn about how George Carlin had it easy compared to Martial and Catullus – no Latin required!

History: Midwives, Witches and Nurses: A History of Midwifery

 

Presenter: Sharon J. Schlicher

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Oct. 7-Nov. 11

Class Time: 1-3 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

Midwifery is the oldest profession. Midwives were the wise women and herbalists that saved lives and knew family secrets. They were the holders of history and honored women’s traditions. We will examine the history of midwifery beginning with Greek and Roman mythology and Celtic Goddesses who were believed to protect women in childbirth and discuss reasons why Sage Femme or Wise Women were considered so dangerous by the Church during the Burning Times in the Medieval Age. We will learn about Oklahoma history beginning with the Trail of Tears and Native American midwives who walked and caught babies, along with the Oklahoma African American Midwives who caught thousands of babies in Langston and other black communities.

Then, we will examine the community midwives through the ‘70s and ‘80s who changed the hospital policies of the 1920s that were the result of the medical revolution, taking women from a natural labor and birth to one with every known intervention at the time. We will learn how midwives made the difference in family-centered care, breastfeeding and childbirth for all women, restoring dignity, mother’s options and father’s rights. We will discuss the anthropological world viewpoint that women helping women (the definition of midwife) is the safest and best choice for childbirth, improving statistical outcomes and safety. Lastly, we will discuss the current witch hunts with the arrest of midwives and why the limiting of women’s choices in childbirth affects everyone, making childbirth a political feminist issue.

History: The Great Patriotic War: Russia’s World War II

 

Presenter: Melissa K. Stockdale

Class Dates: Mondays, Sept. 14-Oct. 19

Class Time: 10-11:45 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: The year 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II. Soviet Russia’s role in the European war was critical to victory. Nearly 90% of all German casualties in World War II occurred on the Eastern front. It was also a devastatingly costly war for the Soviets, claiming more than 25 million lives. This course examines the Russian experience of World War II, a conflict that Russians call the “Great Patriotic War.” We will explore the causes and military conduct of the war, the wartime experience of both soldiers and civilians, homefront mobilization—including propaganda campaigns—and how the winning alliance between the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S. so quickly degenerated into a new “Cold War.” We’ll conclude our course by examining memory of the war, with particular emphasis on the Putin regime’s use of that memory for political and nationalist ends.

History: The American Civil War We Ought to Remember

 

Presenter: Lance Janda

Class Dates: Fridays, Sept. 18-Oct. 23 

Class Time: 9-10:30 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: At a time when our country continues to struggle with racism and the legacy of slavery, with the notion of states’ rights and federalism, and with the question of what ought to be celebrated in public spaces with statues and memorials, the American Civil War remains as relevant as ever. What does it mean to be an American? Where is the line between state and federal powers? How do we determine which historical facts are immortalized in textbooks and government buildings, and who makes those decisions? What is the difference between celebrating the heritage and history of a given people or region and perpetuating divisive ideology or myth? All of these questions and more will be considered in our short course on the Civil War. We’ll concentrate on the historical background to the conflict, the causes of the war, the enormous changes the war wrought in social, economic and governmental affairs, the importance of the war in terms of military tactics and technology, and the experiences of ordinary soldiers and civilians caught in the maelstrom. We’ll conclude with a discussion of the consequences of the war, and the ways in which they loom large in our country even today.

Literature: Introduction to the Modern Short Story

 

Presenter: Chris Carter

Class Dates: Fridays, Aug. 28-Sept. 25

Class Time: 2-3:30 p.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

Required text: Stories of Your Life and Others by Ted Chiang. Available through Amazon and Barnes & Noble

This course is an introduction to modern short fiction, focusing on five stories from Ted Chiang’s debut collection, Stories of Your Life and Others, published in 2002. We will meet five times and read the following:

Aug. 28: The Evolution of Human Science, Tower of Babylon
Sept. 4: Division by Zero
Sept. 11: Seventy-Two Letters
Sept. 18: Story of Your Life
Sept. 25: Hell is the Absence of God

There is no prerequisite for this course. Although it is the seventh in my series of OLLI courses, it is a brand-new course and will take us in a new direction, namely, contemporary science fiction. I predict you will like this course, even if you think you do not like science fiction. 

Literature: Poetry Club

 

Presenter: David Anderson

Class Dates: Tuesdays
2020: Aug. 25, Sept. 29, Oct. 27, Nov. 17
2021: Jan. 26, Feb. 23, March 30, April 27

Class Time: 5-6:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: The Poetry Club will specialize in the close analysis of English verse. Each month we will discuss a specific poet from English literary history, focusing on one or more short poems. We will begin with a brief discussion of the poet in question and will guide the group through an analysis of the work.

Literature: Great Jewish Short Stories from the
20th Century

 

Presenter: Alan Levenson

Class Dates: Tuesdays, Oct. 13-Nov. 3

Class Time: 2-3:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: The People of the Book turned to a wider variety of genres in modern times, exploring the border of history and fiction, religion and secularism. Through short stories originally written in Yiddish, German, Hebrew and English, we explore the modern Jewish experience through four literary gems. Peretz’s Bontsche the Silent runs a second only to Fiddler the Roof as a beloved Yiddish classic. Bontsche represents the little man ground down by society. Arnold Zweig’s Buchmendel captures the lost world order of the Hapsburgs in the person of a disoriented book lover in reduced circumstances. Aharon Megged’s The Name sets the obligation to remember the Holocaust against the need to press forward in the new state of Israel. Cynthia Ozick’s The Pagan Rabbi takes a mysterious suicide as an entrée into the viability of religion in a secular age.

Literature: The Brontë Sisters

 

Presenter: Lisa Seale

Class Dates: Tuesdays, Oct. 13-Nov. 17

Class Time: 1-2:30 p.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

Charlotte Brontë, Emily Brontë, Anne Brontë—strong women, stronger authors. The first two sisters’ works were wildly popular immediately upon publication and have remained so. We will, of course, discuss Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights, but also The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (reading all three novels in advance of class, if possible). We’ll also watch selections from film adaptations and a documentary about the sisters who imagined their way into our own collective imagination.

Political Science: Current Issues in International Security

 

Presenter: Chris Sartorius

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Nov. 4-Dec. 2

Class Time: 1:30-3:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course provides an overview of current and future international security challenges. We will explore contemporary security issues in Europe, Asia and the Middle East. We will discuss security concepts, including inter-state conflict, ethnic conflict, collective security/alliances, nuclear strategy and deterrence, arms control, weapons of mass destruction proliferation, and terrorism. The course will also examine transnational and emerging international security threats and opportunities. Major course goals include increasing understanding of various regional security issues, identifying competing national interests and analyzing potential U.S. national security policy options. At the end of the course, we will be positioned to better understand the many complex, international security problems facing our country during our next presidential administration.

Political Science: The Practice of Diplomacy

 

Presenter: Rob Andrew

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Aug. 26-Sept. 23

Class Time: 9:30-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

The practice of diplomacy is as important as it has ever been to help address and solve major disputes in today’s world. A resurgent and aggressive Russia and a powerful challenge—in all aspects of DIME-Diplomacy/Information/Military/Economic—from China demand that diplomacy remains the preferred method of trying to address/resolve these problems. Additionally, the practice of diplomacy is just as important for addressing “day-to-day” issues around the world as it is for the next conflict.  

What is diplomacy? Who actually practices U.S. diplomacy? What are the practical aspects of diplomacy that make up our routine interaction with foreign nation-states and other entities? This course is designed to provide you with a greater understanding of how day-to-day diplomacy is conducted by U.S. Foreign Service Officers from the Department of State and other entities at our embassies around the world. We will learn from former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and others about the state of World Order and American Diplomatic History. We will take a look inside the structure of the U.S. Department of State as well as a U.S. Embassy and how it operates. Finally, we will also look at the challenging process that one must undertake in order to become a U.S. Foreign Service Officer within the State Department.

Basic topics by date:

  • Aug. 26 – Introduction/What Is the U.S. Embassy/State Department?
  • Sept. 2 – A Day in the Life of a Diplomat/Tales from the Field/Taking the Foreign Service Test
  • Sept. 9 – Europe: Its Pluralistic International Order and European Balance of Power System and Its End
  • Sept. 16 – Acting for All Mankind: The U.S. and Its Concept of Order and the U.S.: Ambivalent Superpower

Recommended Books: World Order by Henry Kissinger; Inside a U.S. Embassy by Shawn Dorman; The Back Channel by William Burns

Music: The Haunts of Elvis Presley

 

Presenter: Kalyn Prince

Class Dates: Thursdays, Oct. 8-29

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: Elvis is alive! He haunts places across the country, in locations that serve as touchpoints for understanding his life and music. In this seminar, we will investigate music legend Elvis Presley by examining his relationship to specific places. The American South, Graceland, Hawaii and even Texas all played a substantial role in shaping Elvis into the King. Likewise, he helped construct those places into what they are today. We’ll explore this reciprocal relationship and consider the ways in which Elvis lives on—or haunts us—in places all over the nation.

Political Science: American Government in 2020

 

Presenter: Cal Hobson

Class Dates: Mondays, Sept. 14-Oct. 5

Class Time: 1-1:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: 

Even before the coronavirus turned the world upside down, this course was in the planning stage, going back two years. It was suggested by an active OLLI member who prepared an extensive outline that clearly justified our deep dive into the topic.

Some observers of 21st-century America say the federal government is too big, too intrusive, too expensive and too wasteful. On the other hand – and there always seems to be two hands on topics like this one – the opposite view posits that, compared to some European democracies, not enough is being done. For example, not all Americans have guaranteed health insurance unlike Canada, the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden that do. The challenge in this seminar is enormous because the subject is complex and
the public divide on it stark, divisive and sometimes even explosive. Experts on both sides can be great talkers, but poor listeners, leaving the great unwashed concerned, confused and even clueless on who has the market on the truth.

To wrap up. If you are a government groupie, pro or con, this course is for you. Experts from both camps will make their case, I will comment, as always, while maintaining the motto for life: Often wrong, but never in doubt. Just ask him.

Political Science: The 2020 Elections

 

Presenter: Cal Hobson

Class Dates: Mondays, Oct. 19-Nov. 9

Class Time: 1-3:30 p.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: As I prepare this narrative, our world is experiencing the early shocks and dangers associated with the coronavirus. The fears are real, and our universal worries appropriate. Therefore, elections matter now more than ever, as does your participation in this seminar, which is the final of three segments covering congressional and presidential contests in 2020.

Religious Studies: Islam: Faith, Praxis, and Theology

 

Presenter: Gershon Lewental

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Sept. 30-Nov. 4

Class Time: 9-10:30 a.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: Although more than one and a half billion people across the world belong to the faith of Islam, a widespread lack of understanding and confusion about the religion’s basic principles and historical developments exists in the Western world—despite the growing presence of Muslim populations in new corners of the globe, especially in western Europe and North America. This course attempts to shed light on the birth and development of the Islamic religious tradition, from the 7th-century to the present. We will answer important questions about Muslim faith, daily life practices and sectarian divisions, and we will also attempt to understand aspects of Islamic mysticism and the role of women in Islamic societies, past and present.

Religious Studies: Women in the Bible

 

Presenter: Jill Hicks-Keeton

Class Dates: Mondays, Aug. 31-Sept. 28 (No class Sept. 7)

Class Time: 9:30-11 a.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course will feature an in-depth exploration of select famous, infamous and unnamed women in the Bible from literary and historical perspectives.

Religious Studies: Introduction to Buddhism

 

Presenter: Ralph Doty

Class Dates: Mondays, Nov. 2-23

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: CCE Forum Building

Format: Hybrid

Cost: $45

Class Description: Although it may be the fastest-growing spiritual movement in this country, Buddhism remains a mystery to most Americans. Not entirely a religion, a philosophy or a form of therapy, it is in some sense all three. This course will examine the basic teachings of Buddhism, the differences between the main schools—including a brief look at Zen—and how Buddhism is adapting to America (and vice versa).

Science: Native Sciences: Indigenous Prospectives on Earth’s Processes

 

Presenter: Shannon Dulin

Class Dates: Wednesdays, Sept. 9-Oct. 7 (No class Sept. 30)

Class Time: 10:30 a.m.-Noon

Class Location: ZOOM

Format: Online

Cost: $45

Class Description: This course will look at geological and meteorological processes through the lens of indigenous peoples and western scientific study of the phenomena. We will discuss indigenous stories, indigenous and scientific artwork, and scientific prospectives on events like tornadoes, earthquakes and river evolution.

Science: Everything You Wanted to Know About Lightning, But Were Afraid to Ask

 

Presenter: William H. Beasely

Class Dates: Thursdays, Aug. 6-Sept. 3 (No class Aug. 13)

Class Time: 10-11:30 a.m.

Class Location: Online

Format: Zoom

Cost: $45

Class Description: What is lightning? We will discuss definitions, sequence of events in cloud-to-ground lightning, statistics, pretty pictures and high-speed videos.

What happens when lightning strikes?  What happens to houses and buildings, cars, people and animals, trees, boats, aircraft and tall towers?

What can be done about it? We will talk about lightning protection, NFPA building protection requirements, electronics and computers, lightning warnings, lightning location networks, advanced warning using electric-field meters and rare observations.

We will then conclude our lesson with a summary of our discussion.