This course provides a basic overview of research techniques, how those techniques have demonstrated success and failure of programs in American criminal justice and what obstacles can prevent research findings from guiding actions by policy and program decision-makers. The student will learn essential research terms and use, how they can assist understanding of existing program operations and administration of new programs and what distinguishes sound research and analysis from questionable. The student will also learn how to learn from what research shows to be failure and how to recognize and perhaps overcome obstacles to sound research and analysis in the policy arena.
This course will enhance students understanding of criminological theory, focusing upon critical analysis of major theoretical perspectives, examining the historical, social and political context from which these theories emerged as well as the policy implications that have or can be derived from the theories.
The backbone of activity within criminal justice consists of policies and programs that have been developed to meet dynamic social needs. Influenced by best practice, legal precedent, ethical considerations, and emerging crime trends, policies reflect the mission of the institution, its character and its behavioral promise to the people it serves. Insofar as criminal justice agencies operate in extremely fluid and often politically charged environments, developing relevant policies and planned initiatives are integral to organizational effectiveness. Agencies live and die by their policies and careers are delicately balanced upon methods of creating sound actions by the employees of the agency. In this course, students will learn the process of policy development from beginning to end: analyzing a problem; setting goals and objectives; designing a program or policy; action planning; implementing and monitoring; evaluating outcomes and reassessing; and reviewing. The course will also examine what research has shown to be effective crime control policy.
Principles from the major ethical positions charted by Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Mill, Kant and Rawls. Students will combine these principles with codes of practice and current case law, examine case vignettes and discuss the ethical components of each case.
This course will survey the evolving field of victimology; from its preoccupation with the study of the victim as a co-active participant in crime, to the reemergence of the victim as the rightful focus of the criminal justice system and public policy.
In this course, students will learn about practical strategies for Resolving Conflict with both internal and external customers. They will also complete a self-assessment of their conflict management style as measured by the TKI Conflict Mode Instrument. Criminal Justice Professionals whether in the Police, Courts or Corrections deal with conflict on a daily basis – both internal and external to their organizations. If this conflict is not resolved as soon as possible – it can lead to dangerous situations for clients and practitioners, as well as internal organizational strife and failed initiatives. This course is very much student centered and as such each student will complete a Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument which will allow him or her to assess his or her own style in dealing with and managing conflict. The course links theory to practice and introduces specific and practical strategies in Resolving Conflict.
Although prisons and jails get the bulk of funding and attention in our corrections systems, the history of probation and parole is as long and complex. In a "one size fits all" world of offenders where all offenders are morally equivalent, face identical futures and carry comparable risk to their fellow citizens, presumably everyone would deserve and receive prison sentences and serve them totally. Then they would continue to be overseen in their communities after release until such time as they clearly no longer pose threats, which would essentially mean death since "one size" would be "fitting all."
But on Planet Reality, all offenders are not the same, and their risks to their communities as well as the punishments they deserve are not the same either. Any fair system of corrections will present different options for disposition (probation, incarceration, fines, restitution, others we will discuss) and ranges of punishment lengths. Any fiscally sound system of corrections will match those dispositions and punishments as closely to its available resources to ensure that dollars are not wasted and that outcomes in terms of later public safety and community values are maximized. This requires careful consideration of the proper mix and of the best possible ways to deliver the dispositions and punishments.
This care for maximizing public safety given available resources has become even more relevant in the last decade as state and local governments have seen budgets cut while corrections populations have grown. As dollars have disappeared, those governments have rethought the "proper mix" and "best possible ways" with greater emphasis on probation, parole and the other punishment options. Today, the need for the most effective probation and parole options is more recognized than ever, as well as the need for a useful range of options between them and incarceration to maintain effective supervision of offenders at less cost than more imprisonment.
This course will expand upon the concept of community policing by providing a history of policing, examining the effectiveness of community partnerships, researching methods of solving problems within communities and developing a strategy to implement community policing in a police department.
This course is designed to provide an overview of juvenile delinquency and the juvenile justice system. The course will examine the historical background of juvenile delinquency and will focus on the depth and breadth of the problem. This will include the latest juvenile justice statistics and trend data. In particular, it is important to understand the theoretical causes of juvenile delinquency and their association with juvenile crime. Related to juvenile crime, the course will cover the juvenile justice system and the processing of juveniles. Finally, this course will examine numerous intervention and diversion programs that are utilized to address juvenile delinquency and crime.
This course will increase the student's knowledge and understanding of a new movement within the criminal justice system that began at the turn of the century. The restorative justice model acknowledges that crimes cause injury to people and to communities and that true justice occurs only when offenders become accountable to their victims and their communities. While restorative justice is different from traditional methods of controlling criminal behavior, the concept is old. Many of the modern-day concepts stem from aboriginal practices of shunning and from sociological and psychological theories nearly a century old. The greatest difference between traditional methods and restorative methods is the measurement of success. Restorative justice measures how much harm has been repaired and prevented rather than how much punishment has been inflicted. In parallel with the restorative justice movement, drug courts also began around the turn of the century as citizens became frustrated with the poor results of the 'get tough on crime' legislation that began in the 1980s. While the theory suggested that long sentences would deter current and prospective offenders and, therefore, reduce drug abuse and drug-related crimes, research in 1999 indicated that the prison population had increased by five times with very little reduction in criminal behavior. While acknowledging that imprisonment is appropriate for some offenders, drug courts advocate for a public health approach through drug treatment and offender accountability and practices many of the values of restorative justice. In this course, students will learn about the restorative justice model and examine the way drug courts have implemented the key principles of restorative justice into pragmatic and beneficial programs that have proven to be successful in crime deterrence as well as improvement in public health. Students will have an opportunity to evaluate and discuss important social science and criminological theories that support the success of these alternative models within the criminal justice system.
This course is an in-depth study of human trafficking – both labor trafficking and sex trafficking. We study human trafficking in select countries around the world, including the United States. In doing so, we address each country as both, a destination, and a departure point for the victims and how the officials of a particular county respond to the victims.
This course will increase the student’s knowledge and understanding of ethical and effective leadership within the criminal justice-corrections profession which is essential in improving the performance and quality of correctional organizations and sustaining a dynamic and evolutionary workforce. This course will review various leadership styles, core competencies demonstrated by effective correctional leaders, skill sets needed for each managerial level within corrections and elements of leadership that effect the development of a collaborate and dynamic workforce. The student will also have an opportunity to identify and evaluate his or her own leadership style and level of competence. The student will learn and practice leadership skills in developing vision and mission statements, strategic planning, problem analysis, communication, interpersonal relationships, self-awareness and team building.
Examines the origins, extent and consequences of racial and ethnic overrepresentation at all stages of contemporary American criminal and juvenile justice systems by utilizing recent research from both race theory and criminological theory.
This course will cover the particular issues and concerns associated with the management and operation of correctional facilities housing juvenile and aging inmates and the particular issues and concerns of public policy associated with appropriate punishment and treatment of juvenile and aging inmates.
Examines the origins, extent and consequences of class/social inequity at all stages of the contemporary American criminal and juvenile justice systems by using emergent research from both social inequity theory and criminology.
This course (LCSJ 5343) will increase the student’s knowledge and understanding of the issues involving the high rate of individuals with mental illness who are involved in the criminal justice system. At five times the general population, mental disorders are particularly prevalent in prison populations where appropriate treatment is usually not provided. By gaining a better understanding of the issues and responding to the mental health needs of offenders, the health and quality of life for both offenders who have mental disorders and other offenders who must live with them can be improved. Ultimately addressing the needs of people with mental disorders reduces recidivism and better adjustment to community life after prison. For those offenders with mental illness that live in prison, responding to their needs is particularly important as the prison environment is already quite demanding and difficult for personnel. Mental health within the criminal justice system must be addressed as a public health issue with both criminal justice and community organizations working together to address the needs of all individuals with mental disorders. This course will review the unique issues and best practices for each component of the criminal justice system – law enforcement, the courts and jails/prisons. The student will also learn about the psychological and social effects of violence on individuals and environments and the psychological effects of secondary trauma and compassion fatigue that CJS professionals often experience. Students will have an opportunity to advance their own understanding of mental health issues in their professional work as well as advocate for quality treatment and care of offenders with mental disorders. Students will be encouraged to develop ways to educate others about the needs of those with mental disorders and to promote appropriate policy and procedures within their organizations.
Provides an in-depth examination of women and crime, particularly in the United States, from a sociological perspective, focusing on theoretical explanations, women as offenders, women as victims of crime and societal responses to female crime.
This course is designed to provide students broad coverage of the key issues and emerging themes in scholarship on penology and corrections. Specific attention will be devoted to the United States and the significant correctional issues that it faces including; theories of punishment, the history of incarceration, the current state of corrections in the United States, international comparisons in prisons, as well as an investigation of the future of incarceration.
This course will increase the student’s knowledge and understanding of the indirect consequences of incarcerating over two million men and women in America annually since the turn of the century, a 700% increase in population from the 1980s. This course will review the impact incarceration has on the offender’s family and community, the indirect costs associated with incarceration, the significant psychological harm to offenders stemming from the harsh reality of day to day life in prison and the tremendous stress correctional employees face in one of the most difficult work environments in America. The student will have an opportunity to review important research regarding the long-term problems experienced by children of incarcerated parents, the disturbing disorganization caused in neighborhoods where a high percentage of members are offenders and the billions of dollars indirectly associated with the corrections industry. The student will also learn about the effects of violence, secondary trauma and compassion fatigue. Students will have an opportunity to develop personal prevention strategies and improvement strategies for their work-place.
The criminal justice system is significantly impacted by substance abuse and drug crimes. This course is designed to provide an in-depth examination of substance abuse trends in the United States, as well as in Oklahoma. In particular, it is important to understand the interrelationship between the substance abuse/dependency, substance abuse treatment and the criminal justice systems, as well as the serious consequences that are associated with how drug crimes are processed and how drug offenders are treated. This course will examine the historical problem of substance abuse/dependency and will focus on what effective policies/programs are in place to address it.
Drugs are pervasive in every part of the world throughout the global economy. In fact, much global economics, as well as political reality, is determined by the drug trade. In this course, students will examine the global nature of drug supply and demand, focusing especially on the nature and operational methods of the various organizations behind the vast network of the global drug trade. In light of seeing drug supply as a global problem, we will examine many of the more prominent organizations that have been involved historically and contemporarily in this business, especially those currently called “narco-terrorists.” Additionally, we will examine the effect of the Columbian connection for cocaine and the emergence and violent thriving of the Mexican Drug Cartels. Finally, students will gain a historical view of US drug policy and examine how to implement drug policy on a state and local level.
Gang formation, risk factors for joining gangs, the efficacy of different types of prevention and intervention and interdiction policies. The historical backgrounds of gangs, drugs and violence in America, as well as current issues related to these subjects, will be explored.
This course will explore the dynamics of leadership within the law enforcement context. We will examine the history and evolution of police administration, general leadership theories, management best practices, as well as contemporary issues confronting the profession. Conducted as a graduate seminar, Studies in Police Leadership will require that students step out of the passive learner role and take on primary responsibility for defining, researching and reflecting on what it means to be a police leader. While we will study contemporary concepts, issues, and best practices, heavy emphasis will be placed on personal relevance and self-refection.
The life-course paradigm has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for understanding criminal behavior. This course is designed to provide an in-depth examination of the life-course paradigm and its application to criminal justice policy.
In this course, students will learn about crime analysis and the use of the data gained to intelligently prevent and/or interdict crime. Specifically, students will demonstrate an understanding of the following: the role of the crime analyst; criminal analysis strategies; geographic information systems; the use of crime analysis to investigate property crimes; the use of crime analysis to investigate people crimes; the use of intelligence analysis; crime mapping.
Cyber forensics is the process of extracting information and data from computer storage media and guaranteeing its accuracy and reliability. The challenge of course is actually finding this data, collecting it, preserving it and presenting it in a manner acceptable in a court of law. Cyber forensics or Computer forensics is the application of scientifically proven methods to gather, process, interpret and to use digital evidence to provide a conclusive description of cyber crime activities. Cyber forensics also includes the act of making digital data suitable for inclusion into a criminal investigation.
In cyber-crimes, physical evidence, which was the backbone of criminal investigation, no longer exists. The domain of evidence has transcended from the physical to the virtual – digital evidence. Digital evidence is latent in nature and needs use of some tools to gather and interpret the evidence just like DNA analysis.
Since any evidence has to be accepted by the court of law, digital evidence also needs to be produced in a manner acceptable to the court. Cyber Forensics to facilitate digital evidence acquisition and analysis has become the need of the hour. Electronic evidence is fragile and can easily be modified. Additionally, cyber thieves, criminals, dishonest and even honest employees hide, wipe, disguise, cloak, encrypt and destroy evidence from storage media using a variety of freeware, shareware and commercially available utility programs. A global dependency on technology combined with the expanding presence of the Internet as a key and strategic resource requires that corporate assets are well protected and safeguarded.
Advanced studies in various criminal justice topics, offered under stated titles determined each semester by the instructor involved
In recent years, society has demanded a greater role of law enforcement in improving safety within the education systems of this nation. Increased police presence in public and private schools as well as institutions of higher learning has been met with both appreciation and skepticism. While there appears to be a definite need for increased safety and security in schools, there is great debate over the role police should play in schools even to the degree of whether or not police should even be present at all. Others call for police to be assigned to every school in America. There can be numerous pitfalls for any police officer or law enforcement agency attempting to police within the education environment.
This course of study will emphasize successful practices on policing within the education systems of our nation and offer instruction to both police and educators on cooperative approaches to making schools safer.
Prerequisite: graduate standing, LSTD 5003, and permission of dean. May be repeated; maximum credit six hours. 75 working hours (per credit hour) of field experience directly related to study focus in the Master's program is required. Requirements include journal, reports, written summary and comprehensive examination over these materials. (F, Sp, Su). See also: